Lehman, Layman, Lemon Genealogy;
It is widely known that the German language surname, "Lehman," came into being with the advent of the surname system. Often one's occupation became his surname. Ours is generally considered to have meant "vassal" or one who works the land. It was a term applied to one who had become bound to a section of real estate as a "fief" with no ownership. Moreover, unlike our own sharecroppers of a century ago, he could not quit and go to work for another landowner but was attached for life to a particular parcel of real property and its owner. He was pretty far back in the socio-economic pecking order.
It may be said that the influx of
German-speaking immigrants to the Colonies in general and through the
Generally, at the time of immigration in the first
half of the 18th Century, the German-speaking immigrants were referred to as "Palatinians." This is not entirely accurate, but neither is their having been
referred to since as “Pennsylvania Dutch” accurate either. The misnomer came about as a result of
many refugees from religious persecution in
The forced emigration from Canton Bern
probably reached its peak in the years between 1660-1675. Gratz, at p. 36,
cites several sources for the fact that about 700 Anabaptists departed Canton
Bern for the Palatinate and
In 1691 another wave of
persecution commenced when it was decreed that all those who did not swear
allegiance nor carry arms should no longer be tolerated. The exodus began
anew and continued through the first two decades of the Eighteenth Century.
Queen Ann of England took advantage of this opportunity to recruit people to send
to the frontiers of
Three centuries later, enter DNA testing. DNA testing for genealogical purposes is not always easy to understand. At times it can be confusing. As we do more and more 37, 67 and even 111-marker tests in the Lehman project, however, the confusion arising from the 61 original ten-marker tests diminishes and will, without doubt, eventually disappear. See further explanation on the "About DNA Testing" page. The researcher is urged to click on that link at the heels of this page and read that page through before then proceeding to ascertain what knowledge DNA tests have brought forth about his or her individual family. It may be quite revealing.
The data which follows is extracted, in part, from Lehman, Layman Genealogy Handbook, sometimes hereinafter referred to as LLGH, which was made available for distribution in 2006. It is a comprehensive summary of all known early Lehman families by all spellings. Included are known European origins with descendants enumerated whose life extended to at or about the advent of the 20th Century. The book is six by nine inches, hard bound in dark red cloth with gold lettering. It is 280 pages including indexes. Families are grouped with help from the results of 70 y-chromosome DNA tests completed as of the date that this book went to the publisher. Index contains more than 1,200 people named Lehman by numerous spellings, mostly born before 1850 with, to avoid confusion, the actual or an estimated birth date of each. A total of more than 2,000 names and 400 locations are indexed.
you have reached a “sticking place,” having traced your family to an
ancestor born in the late
1700s or early 1800s and can make no further progress, this book will
probably help you get unstuck. You have, from the onset, been working
backward in time from the present. In the beginning, that was all that you
could do. This book starts with the pre-1760 immigrant and outlines his known
descendants to the fourth or fifth generation. That generally comes down to
folks born up to about the mid 19th Century. You may know from DNA tests
which early families match your DNA. If you have not found a Lehman male
relative to do a test, however, that is not fatal to further progress. You will, with the aid
provided by this book, be working foreword in time as well as backward in
time. The object,
of course, is to connect the two. If you have traced your Lehman
ancestors to one born about 1820 or before, he will probably connect with
contemporary Lehmans in this book.
Lehman, Layman Genealogy Handbook, 2011 Supplement, hereafter sometimes called The Supplement,was made available for distribution in early 2011. It is 85 pages including index and is in paperback. It brought the information in LLGH to a state of the art status as of early 2011. For those folks who have the 2006 book, the cost of the Supplement is $8. Price of both Lehman, Layman Genealogy Handbook and the 2011 Supplement is $28 and, either way, your compiler will pay the postage.
Time marches on. By early 2014, a total of more than 160 test results had been recorded and analyzed. The additional 30-plus tests, combined with continuing historical research, has resulted in further advances in Lehman genealogy and that progress has been updated as of early 2014.
There must be a better way to publish progress than to publish an additional bound volume every few years. Accordingly, the update is on three hole punched paper, printed on both sides and suitable to being placed in a 3 ring notebook. By doing it this way, future updates can be added, perhaps even by simply substituting pages, thus eliminating future individual bound documents to maintain documentation of Lehman research on a current basis.
I am not interested in realizing revenue from this project; it was a labor of love. I will send a copy of the 2014 Update, at my own expense, to anyone who will make a contribution of $7 or more to the Lehman Project General Fund at FTDNA. The fund is used to help finance DNA tests when the participant is unable or unwilling to pay for the test and it is considered worthwhile to the advancement of Lehman genealogy.
To facilitate matters, just make your check for $7 or more payable to FTDNA Lehmann General Fund and send it to me. I will see that it gets there in your name and will put your copy of the update in the mail to you.
This update is most useful when used in conjunction with the original 2006 Lehman Layman Genealogy Handbook and the 2011 Supplement. If you do not have those, your check for $35 payable to me at the address below will get all three publications in the mail to you. I will see that $7 of the $35 gets to the FTDNA Lehmann General Fund in your name.
This might be an appropriate time to mention that, as of the last revision of this page, I am down to 10 copies of the 2006 Lehman Layman Genealogy Handbook. I have plenty of the updates.
Response to the update has been good and the Lehman Project General Fund has been rejuvenated. If you think that a test of your Lehman (by any spelling) line would be helpful but have not done so because of the cost, please contact the compiler.
The 2014 Update contains names of
an additional 21 Lehman immigrants born before 1800. Almost surely some of
those later immigrants are the immigrant ancestor of participants whose result
has no match in the project so far. If your name is Lehman, by any
one of a plethora of spellings, not all of which appear with the coat of
arms adjoining this text, and your immigrant ancestor arrived no later than
the early 1800s, these publications represent the "cutting edge of knowledge," including results of
more than 160 DNA tests. They probably contains data relating to your ancestors.
Some effort may be required, however, in order to make the connection and
these books are designed to help the Lehman researcher do just that.
Information was compiled and edited by Earl R. Layman,